Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, non-flammable , soluble in water, gas. However, its use in the food sector is very common: from the production of preserves and jams, to the packaging of dried fruit, from the conditioning of vegetables to the treatment of shellfish. In fact, sulfur dioxide has important antiseptic properties and is also widely used in the wine sector.
The Gibertini SO2 gravimeter automatic titrator is a high precision instrument essential for the determination of free sulfur dioxide on white, red and very red wines, fruit juices, alcoholic beverages and vinegars
The SO2 Gravimeter system allows to obtain repeatable results:
|Total SO2||Free SO2|
|Repeatability||6 mg/l||2 mg/l|
|Execution time||1 ÷ 300 mg/l in 4 ÷ 6 minutes||1 ÷ 300 mg/l in 2 ÷ 3 minutes|
Preliminary treatment is essential to determine the free sulfur dioxide in red and very red wines, as well as in wines or musts with added ascorbic acid.
The use of bubble allows to extract the free sulfur dioxide contained in the wine or must sample and to fix it stably in a colorless solution of distilled water and NaOH, which will then be titrated with SO2Gravimeter.
By definition :
In wine we have free and combined sulfur dioxide in different proportions. These proportions depend on the composition and physico-chemical conditions of the wine or must.
|Free (Molecular)||Antimicrobial||Microbial stability: action threshold in wine 0.6 ÷ 0.8 mg / L|
|Free (Bisulfite)||Antioxidant||Prevents oxidation of wine: action threshold 20 ÷ 40 mg / L|
|Free (Sulfite)||in wine is generally less than 1%|
|Free (Combined bisulfite)||Low antimicrobial activity||The combined part with weak bonds can contribute to the free fraction|
|Total SO2||sum of all forms|
All SO2 Gravimeter series are supplied with:
Sulfur dioxide in winemaking is used for its antioxidant and antiseptic actions. Its multiple functions allow to solve many problems during the transformation of wine, as well as enhancing the organoleptic characteristics and allowing a better conservation.
From harvest to refinement:European Regulations
Although the effects of sulfur dioxide in winemaking are important, it has toxic effects on the organism and its use is limited by European laws. The maximum limits allowed are (Art. 65 of EEC Reg. No. 822/87 of 16 March 1987):
(*) The Italian law (Presidential Decree No. 162 of 12/2/1965 art.23) has set the maximum tolerable value for wines at 200 mg / l white and rosé.
Sulfur dioxide is a preservative (E220) and the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined its maximum daily dose in 0.7 mg / kg of body weight, while the lethal dose is defined in 1.5 g / kg of body weight.
|Wine||Conventional Limits||BIO Limits||FREE Wine Limits|
|Red wines with residual sugar < 5 g/l||150 mg / l||100 mg / l||90 mg / l|
|Red wines with residual sugar > 5 g/l||200 mg / l||170 mg / l||120 mg / l|
|White and rosé wines with residual sugar < 5 g/l||200 mg / l||150 mg / l||120 mg / l|
|White and rosé wines with residual sugar > 5 g/l||250 mg / l||220 mg / l||150 mg / l|
|Quality wines and sparkling wines||185 mg / l||155 mg / l||111 mg / l|
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